If you are thinking about getting into photography and are unorganized, you might be able to get through college without a system. Here's mine if you're looking for a start:
Jon's Archiving Method
Year.Month.Day – Title of event
ex., 2014.9.6 – Grand Rapids Balloon Festival
Why is it so important to have the title like that? When cataloguing, it makes it easier to sort through, especially if you export the folder and are moving it about in Finder (Windows Explorer for PCs). All you have to do is "Sort by Name" and it will place your folders in chronological order.
Individual File Naming
Shortened event name 001
Some websites are finicky about file names containing spaces (e.g., Wordpress). Using underscores (or dashes) makes it fairly easy to read in your Finder while preventing this problem.
I use "Batch Rename" in Adobe Bridge to change file names. Other programs like Google Picasa only allow you to rename files while exporting photos which can be a bummer if you have to find a RAW files for a JPEG.
Yeah, tagging. It's a living hell to tag photos AFTER you export them, because then you don't have tags on the RAW files. At the very least, tag your select shots. Don't tag the photos on your computer up the wazoo or else it will be a lamented chore that you never do. Make it worth while. I generally tag people and specific locations (in addition to cities if cities are relevant). As you might be photographing things completely different from me, you'll have to come up with useful tags. Create a core set of tags in Bridge, Picasa, or whatever program you use and use it to batch add tags.
The longer you use tags, the more cluttered tag banks can become. Make sure to keep your core tags separate from one time use tags. Use tag folders as much as possible.
When collaborating, it can become incredibly difficult to differentiate who shot what from a glance when you are dumping large quantities of files to a common place before anyone even edits (this happens at events). Just about any SLR and most cameras above $200 will let you change the file naming. I have my D800 save files automatically to _JDL0000. Using your initials can make it easy to spot your photos out of a group, especially when all the photos might be arranged by date and time, mixing shots from different photographers.
Even if you rarely shoot with other photographers, it's a wise idea to make your filename different than factory defaults.